Mitte des Jahrhunderts wird das Telefon gleich vierfach erfunden. Am Ende aber kassiert Alexander Graham Bell den Ruhm. Alexander Graham Bell wollte eigentlich ein Gerät entwickeln, das Töne sichtbar machen kann. Daraus wurde dann das Telefon. Vor genau Doch angeklagt von einem Konkurrenten, musste Bell sein Patent erst vor Gericht verteidigen. Von Sönke Gäthke. Analoges Telefon mit.
Zeitl. Einordnung: - 1854 Charles BourseulFrühere Versuche. Alexander Graham Bell (–) sollte als Erster, der ein für den praktischen Verkehr brauchbaren Fernsprechapparat baute, in die. Alexander Graham Bell was the first to secure a patent for the telephone, but only just. And it almost cost him his marriage Im Alter von elf Jahren beschloss Bell,. Doch angeklagt von einem Konkurrenten, musste Bell sein Patent erst vor Gericht verteidigen. Von Sönke Gäthke. Analoges Telefon mit.
Bell Telefon Navigation menu VideoGRAHAM BELL TELEFONU NASIL İCAT ETTİ? Alexander Graham Bell (3. března , Edinburgh, Skotsko – 2. srpna , Baddeck, Kanada) byl skotsko-americký vědec a vynálezce, který se zabýval tvorbou lidské řeči, výchovou hluchoněmých a elektromagnetickým přenosem řečy1039.comzl mikrofon, zkonstruoval první použitelný telefon () a gramofon (s A. C. Bellem a S. Tairotem, ) a řadu dalších přístrojů.Narození: 3. března , Edinburgh, Skotsko. Zvyčajne sa vynález telefónu prisudzuje vynálezcovi menom Alexander Graham y1039.com prvý telefón bol zostrojený v Bostone v roku Podľa novších údajov vynašiel telefón taliansky vynálezca Antonio Meucci už v roku Jeho prvenstvo v júni potvrdil napríklad Kongres Spojených štátov (Rezolúcia ). Podľa ďalších zdrojov vynašiel telefón aj Philip Reis v. Telefon koji je izumio A. G. Bell je imao istu napravu za govor i slušanje. Bellov telefon, koji se do danas održao u izmijenjenomu obliku kao telefonska slušalica, sastoji se od trajnog (permanentnog) potkovastog magneta s polnim nastavcima y1039.com polnih nastavaka namotana je električna zavojnica s mnogo zavoja tanke žice, čiji krajevi završavaju na priključnice TT, odakle vode Alma mater: Sveučilište u Edinburghu, Sveučilišni . New York: Popular Mechanics. XXIII, — Presented to the Academy at its annual meeting. Edinburgh, UK: Mainstream Publishing. Continuing his experiments Denain Basketball Brantford, Bell brought home a working model of his telephone. Father of Prof. Victoria Wild Appreciation of the Telephone Service". Today just got better. Their final aircraft design, the Silver Dartembodied all of the advancements Spiele Skat in the earlier machines. Mississauga, Ontario: Copp Clark Pitman. Teaching his father's system, in OctoberAlexander Bell opened his "School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech" in Tipwin MГјnchen, which attracted a large number of deaf pupils, with his first class numbering 30 students. One of the AEA's inventions, a practical wingtip form of the aileronwas to become a standard component on all aircraft. The Bell Telefon.
He was survived by his wife and two daughters. Today, the famous scientist is remembered for his groundbreaking work in sound technology and improving education for the deaf.
His best-known invention, the telephone, forever changed the way humans communicate with each other. Alexander Graham Bell.
History: Alexander Graham Bell. Famous Scientists. Who is credited with inventing the telephone? The Library of Congress. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!
Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. He was an immigrant. Bell was born on March 3, , in Edinburgh, Scotland. After attending school in Scotland and London, the year-old immigrated to Canada with his parents in Italian inventor and engineer Guglielmo Marconi developed, demonstrated and marketed the first successful long-distance wireless telegraph and in broadcast the first transatlantic radio signal.
On September 1, , a Boston woman named Emma Nutt made history—and all she had to do was pick up the phone. Her soothing voice helped usher in a new era of telecommunications and In his 84 years, Thomas Edison acquired a record number of 1, patents singly or jointly and was the driving force behind such innovations as the phonograph, the incandescent light bulb and one of the earliest motion picture cameras.
He was an impassioned champion of a strong federal government, and played a key role in defending Serbian-American engineer and physicist Nikola Tesla made dozens of breakthroughs in the production, transmission and application of electric power.
The Bell Memorial Association also purchased the Bell family's former farmhouse, Melville House, and its orchard at Tutela Heights, opening it as a museum to the family and to the invention of the telephone.
In , it was declared a historic landmark, and is now known as the Bell Homestead National Historic Site. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the Canadian telecommunications company, see Bell Canada. For other uses, see Bell Telephone disambiguation.
Former type. Main article: International Bell Telephone Company. However, the financing provided to Bell for him to conduct his research and development was inadequately low to the point that he had to continue teaching just to make ends meet.
Watson, in consideration for his previous unpaid service and for the loans he made to Bell while they worked together creating their first working telephone.
Adams, Orville R. Theodore N. Retrieved August 13, Alexander Graham Bell , Lerner Publications, , p. Retrieved 20 August Retrieved January 1, July 11, Archived from the original on July 11, Retrieved July 11, XXIII, — Presented to the Academy at its annual meeting.
Bell System. American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Local telephone companies still extant. Western Electric. Bell Labs. Long Lines.
She was later to say that Bell dedicated his life to the penetration of that "inhuman silence which separates and estranges".
Several influential people of the time, including Bell, viewed deafness as something that should be eradicated, and also believed that with resources and effort, they could teach the deaf to read lips and speak known as oralism  and not use sign language , thus enabling their integration within the wider society from which many were often being excluded.
During this period, he alternated between Boston and Brantford, spending summers in his Canadian home. At Boston University, Bell was "swept up" by the excitement engendered by the many scientists and inventors residing in the city.
He continued his research in sound and endeavored to find a way to transmit musical notes and articulate speech, but although absorbed by his experiments, he found it difficult to devote enough time to experimentation.
While days and evenings were occupied by his teaching and private classes, Bell began to stay awake late into the night, running experiment after experiment in rented facilities at his boarding house.
Keeping "night owl" hours, he worried that his work would be discovered and took great pains to lock up his notebooks and laboratory equipment.
Bell had a specially made table where he could place his notes and equipment inside a locking cover. Deciding to give up his lucrative private Boston practice, Bell retained only two students, six-year-old "Georgie" Sanders, deaf from birth, and year-old Mabel Hubbard.
Each pupil would play an important role in the next developments. George's father, Thomas Sanders, a wealthy businessman, offered Bell a place to stay in nearby Salem with Georgie's grandmother, complete with a room to "experiment".
Although the offer was made by George's mother and followed the year-long arrangement in where her son and his nurse had moved to quarters next to Bell's boarding house, it was clear that Mr.
Sanders was backing the proposal. The arrangement was for teacher and student to continue their work together, with free room and board thrown in.
Having lost her hearing after a near-fatal bout of scarlet fever close to her fifth birthday,   [N 12] she had learned to read lips but her father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard , Bell's benefactor and personal friend, wanted her to work directly with her teacher.
By , Bell's initial work on the harmonic telegraph had entered a formative stage, with progress made both at his new Boston "laboratory" a rented facility and at his family home in Canada a big success.
Bell thought it might be possible to generate undulating electrical currents that corresponded to sound waves. But he had no working model to demonstrate the feasibility of these ideas.
In , telegraph message traffic was rapidly expanding and in the words of Western Union President William Orton , had become "the nervous system of commerce".
Antonio Meucci sent a telephone model and technical details to the Western Union telegraph company but failed to win a meeting with executives.
When he asked for his materials to be returned, in , he was told they had been lost. Two years later Bell, who shared a laboratory with Meucci, filed a patent for a telephone, became a celebrity and made a lucrative deal with Western Union.
Meucci sued and was nearing victory—the supreme court agreed to hear the case and fraud charges were initiated against Bell—when the Florentine died in The legal action died with him.
In March , Bell and Pollok visited the scientist Joseph Henry , who was then director of the Smithsonian Institution , and asked Henry's advice on the electrical multi-reed apparatus that Bell hoped would transmit the human voice by telegraph.
Henry replied that Bell had "the germ of a great invention". When Bell said that he did not have the necessary knowledge, Henry replied, "Get it!
However, a chance meeting in between Bell and Thomas A. Watson , an experienced electrical designer and mechanic at the electrical machine shop of Charles Williams, changed all that.
With financial support from Sanders and Hubbard, Bell hired Thomas Watson as his assistant, [N 14] and the two of them experimented with acoustic telegraphy.
On June 2, , Watson accidentally plucked one of the reeds and Bell, at the receiving end of the wire, heard the overtones of the reed; overtones that would be necessary for transmitting speech.
That demonstrated to Bell that only one reed or armature was necessary, not multiple reeds. This led to the "gallows" sound-powered telephone , which could transmit indistinct, voice-like sounds, but not clear speech.
In , Bell developed an acoustic telegraph and drew up a patent application for it. Since he had agreed to share U.
Meanwhile, Elisha Gray was also experimenting with acoustic telegraphy and thought of a way to transmit speech using a water transmitter.
On February 14, , Gray filed a caveat with the U. Patent Office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter.
That same morning, Bell's lawyer filed Bell's application with the patent office. There is considerable debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell's patent.
Bell was in Boston on February 14 and did not arrive in Washington until February Bell's patent ,, was issued to Bell on March 7, , by the U.
Patent Office. Bell's patent covered "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically On March 10, , three days after his patent was issued, Bell succeeded in getting his telephone to work, using a liquid transmitter similar to Gray's design.
Vibration of the diaphragm caused a needle to vibrate in the water, varying the electrical resistance in the circuit. When Bell spoke the sentence "Mr.
Watson—Come here—I want to see you" into the liquid transmitter,  Watson, listening at the receiving end in an adjoining room, heard the words clearly.
Although Bell was, and still is, accused of stealing the telephone from Gray,  Bell used Gray's water transmitter design only after Bell's patent had been granted, and only as a proof of concept scientific experiment,  to prove to his own satisfaction that intelligible "articulate speech" Bell's words could be electrically transmitted.
The question of priority for the variable resistance feature of the telephone was raised by the examiner before he approved Bell's patent application.
He told Bell that his claim for the variable resistance feature was also described in Gray's caveat. Bell pointed to a variable resistance device in his previous application in which he described a cup of mercury, not water.
He had filed the mercury application at the patent office a year earlier on February 25, , long before Elisha Gray described the water device.
In addition, Gray abandoned his caveat, and because he did not contest Bell's priority, the examiner approved Bell's patent on March 3, Gray had reinvented the variable resistance telephone, but Bell was the first to write down the idea and the first to test it in a telephone.
The patent examiner , Zenas Fisk Wilber, later stated in an affidavit that he was an alcoholic who was much in debt to Bell's lawyer, Marcellus Bailey , with whom he had served in the Civil War.
He claimed he showed Gray's patent caveat to Bailey. Wilber also claimed after Bell arrived in Washington D. Bell claimed they discussed the patent only in general terms, although in a letter to Gray, Bell admitted that he learned some of the technical details.
Bell denied in an affidavit that he ever gave Wilber any money. On March 10, Bell used "the instrument" in Boston to call Thomas Watson who was in another room but out of earshot.
He said, "Mr. Watson, come here — I want to see you" and Watson soon appeared at his side. Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought home a working model of his telephone.
On August 3, , from the telegraph office in Brantford, Ontario, Bell sent a tentative telegram to the village of Mount Pleasant four miles six kilometres distant, indicating that he was ready.
He made a telephone call via telegraph wires and faint voices were heard replying. The following night, he amazed guests as well as his family with a call between the Bell Homestead and the office of the Dominion Telegraph Company in Brantford along an improvised wire strung up along telegraph lines and fences, and laid through a tunnel.
This time, guests at the household distinctly heard people in Brantford reading and singing. The third test on August 10, , was made via the telegraph line between Brantford and Paris, Ontario, eight miles thirteen kilometres distant.
This test was said by many sources to be the "world's first long-distance call". The first two-way reciprocal conversation over a line occurred between Cambridge and Boston roughly 2.
The president of Western Union balked, countering that the telephone was nothing but a toy. By then, the Bell company no longer wanted to sell the patent.
Bell began a series of public demonstrations and lectures to introduce the new invention to the scientific community as well as the general public.
A short time later, his demonstration of an early telephone prototype at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia brought the telephone to international attention.
One of the judges at the Exhibition, Sir William Thomson later, Lord Kelvin , a renowned Scottish scientist, described the telephone as "the greatest by far of all the marvels of the electric telegraph".
These were the first publicly witnessed long-distance telephone calls in the UK. The queen considered the process to be "quite extraordinary" although the sound was "rather faint".
The Bell Telephone Company was created in , and by , more than , people in the U. Bell Company engineers made numerous other improvements to the telephone, which emerged as one of the most successful products ever.
In , the Bell company acquired Edison's patents for the carbon microphone from Western Union. This made the telephone practical for longer distances, and it was no longer necessary to shout to be heard at the receiving telephone.
In January , Bell made the first ceremonial transcontinental telephone call. The New York Times reported:. Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston.
It was the first wire conversation ever held. Yesterday afternoon [on January 25, ], the same two men talked by telephone to each other over a 3,mile wire between New York and San Francisco.
Bell, the veteran inventor of the telephone, was in New York, and Mr. Watson, his former associate, was on the other side of the continent.
As is sometimes common in scientific discoveries, simultaneous developments can occur, as evidenced by a number of inventors who were at work on the telephone.
Supreme Court ,  but none was successful in establishing priority over the original Bell patent   and the Bell Telephone Company never lost a case that had proceeded to a final trial stage.
In personal correspondence to Bell, both Gray and Dolbear had acknowledged his prior work, which considerably weakened their later claims. On January 13, , the U.
Government moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation. After a series of decisions and reversals, the Bell company won a decision in the Supreme Court, though a couple of the original claims from the lower court cases were left undecided.
With a change in administration and charges of conflict of interest on both sides arising from the original trial, the US Attorney General dropped the lawsuit on November 30, , leaving several issues undecided on the merits.
During a deposition filed for the trial, Italian inventor Antonio Meucci also claimed to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy in In , in the first of three cases in which he was involved, [N 16] Meucci took the stand as a witness in the hope of establishing his invention's priority.
Meucci's testimony in this case was disputed due to a lack of material evidence for his inventions, as his working models were purportedly lost at the laboratory of American District Telegraph ADT of New York, which was later incorporated as a subsidiary of Western Union in House of Representatives on June 11, , stated that Meucci's "work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged".
The Siemens company produced near-identical copies of the Bell telephone without having to pay royalties. The strain put on Bell by his constant appearances in court, necessitated by the legal battles, eventually resulted in his resignation from the company.
His wedding present to his bride was to turn over 1, of his 1, shares in the newly formed Bell Telephone Company. During that excursion, Bell took a handmade model of his telephone with him, making it a "working holiday".
The courtship had begun years earlier; however, Bell waited until he was more financially secure before marrying. Although the telephone appeared to be an "instant" success, it was not initially a profitable venture and Bell's main sources of income were from lectures until after From , he would sign his name "Alec Bell".
The Bell family home was in Cambridge, Massachusetts, until when Bell's father-in-law bought a house in Washington, D. Bell was a British subject throughout his early life in Scotland and later in Canada until when he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.
In , he characterized his status as: "I am not one of those hyphenated Americans who claim allegiance to two countries. By , a new summer retreat was contemplated.
He was an enthusiastic boater, and Bell and his family sailed or rowed a long series of vessels on Bras d'Or Lake , ordering additional vessels from the H.
In his final, and some of his most productive years, Bell split his residency between Washington, D.
Until the end of his life, Bell and his family would alternate between the two homes, but Beinn Bhreagh would, over the next 30 years, become more than a summer home as Bell became so absorbed in his experiments that his annual stays lengthened.
Both Mabel and Bell became immersed in the Baddeck community and were accepted by the villagers as "their own". Mabel and Bell mobilized the community to help victims in Halifax.
Although Alexander Graham Bell is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, his interests were extremely varied.
These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone , one for the phonograph , five for aerial vehicles, four for "hydroairplanes", and two for selenium cells.
Bell's inventions spanned a wide range of interests and included a metal jacket to assist in breathing, the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems, a device to locate icebergs, investigations on how to separate salt from seawater, and work on finding alternative fuels.
Bell worked extensively in medical research and invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf. During his Volta Laboratory period, Bell and his associates considered impressing a magnetic field on a record as a means of reproducing sound.
Although the trio briefly experimented with the concept, they could not develop a workable prototype.
They abandoned the idea, never realizing they had glimpsed a basic principle which would one day find its application in the tape recorder , the hard disc and floppy disc drive, and other magnetic media.
Bell's own home used a primitive form of air conditioning, in which fans blew currents of air across great blocks of ice. He also anticipated modern concerns with fuel shortages and industrial pollution.
Methane gas, he reasoned, could be produced from the waste of farms and factories. At his Canadian estate in Nova Scotia, he experimented with composting toilets and devices to capture water from the atmosphere.
In a magazine interview published shortly before his death, he reflected on the possibility of using solar panels to heat houses. Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter jointly invented a wireless telephone, named a photophone , which allowed for the transmission of both sounds and normal human conversations on a beam of light.
On June 21, , Bell's assistant transmitted a wireless voice telephone message a considerable distance, from the roof of the Franklin School in Washington, D.
Bell believed the photophone's principles were his life's "greatest achievement", telling a reporter shortly before his death that the photophone was "the greatest invention [I have] ever made, greater than the telephone".
Bell is also credited with developing one of the early versions of a metal detector through the use of an induction balance, after the shooting of U.
President James A. Garfield in According to some accounts, the metal detector worked flawlessly in tests but did not find Guiteau 's bullet, partly because the metal bed frame on which the President was lying disturbed the instrument, resulting in static.
Bell's own detailed account, presented to the American Association for the Advancement of Science in , differs in several particulars from most of the many and varied versions now in circulation, by concluding that extraneous metal was not to blame for failure to locate the bullet.
Perplexed by the peculiar results he had obtained during an examination of Garfield, Bell "proceeded to the Executive Mansion the next morning It was then recollected that underneath the horse-hair mattress on which the President lay was another mattress composed of steel wires.
Upon obtaining a duplicate, the mattress was found to consist of a sort of net of woven steel wires, with large meshes. The extent of the [area that produced a response from the detector] having been so small, as compared with the area of the bed, it seemed reasonable to conclude that the steel mattress had produced no detrimental effect.
Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils and hydroplanes. Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane as a very significant achievement.
Based on information gained from that article, he began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat. See bell.
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